Recently I have received some questions from the orchard management staff: What about the fruit tree rotten roots? In fact, the phenomenon of rotten dead trees is a problem that many orchards will encounter. According to the survey, some dead or dead trees in some orchards have even reached more than 60%, seriously affecting the output of orchards and reducing economic benefits. What is the reason for the rotten roots in the orchard? How to solve this problem?
Dead tree fruit rot causes
1. Long-term chemical fertilizers are at the forefront, and fruit trees are the first to suffer from
Long-term application of chemical fertilizers such as diammonium, urea, potassium sulfate, compound fertilizer and compound fertilizer destroys the soil and causes many catastrophic problems for fruit trees, such as:
1) Long-term use of chemical fertilizers, the organic matter in the soil is seriously deficient, and the organic matter of many orchards has dropped below 0.6%. The beneficial bacteria have lost their living environment, the harmful bacteria have proliferated, and the roots have been infested by fungi, causing rotten dead trees.
2) Due to the serious lack of organic matter in the soil, the soil is compacted and the aeration is poor, which affects the robust growth of the roots.
3) Long-term chemical fertilizers are at the head, causing severe acidification of the soil, especially the manganese poisoning phenomenon in the sandstone mountain area is becoming more and more serious.
4) Long-term excessive nitrogen fertilizer causes the branches to be long, and the results are serious in large and small years. The tree is weak and not strong, and the rot is serious.
5) Long-term attention to a large number of elements, neglecting the application of medium and micro nutrient, the trace elements in the soil are severely depleted, the physiological diseases are serious, and the quality of the fruit is reduced.
2, a large number of unfermented and decomposed farmyard manure, resulting in rotten root dead tree
A large number of unfertilized and decomposed people, livestock and poultry manure are directly applied to the soil of the orchard. The large amount of pathogens, pests and salt carried by them will cause serious damage to the root system, and severe cases will cause rotten roots and dead trees. In order to save labor and effort, the use of hole application, ditch application, digging ditch (hole) is small and small, filling the fertilizer with the hole, covering the soil, burning the root is also a common phenomenon.
3, to give up long-term soil management, exacerbated by soil compaction
The orchard will not be planed for a long time. The spring and summer herbicides all rely on herbicides, only weeds are eliminated, and the soil permeability cannot be dredged. As a result, the living soil layer is in a state of severe compaction for a long time, and the root system of the fruit tree is led to the surface layer, which is neither drought-resistant nor resistant. After the rain, the soil was poorly ventilated, and the roots were suffocated and a lot of fallen leaves.
4, the tree storage is seriously inadequate, which is the main cause of rot disease
The survey found that: normal ore management of the orchard households, spraying and leaf protection, summer topdressing, autumn application of basic fertilizer, all management in place, keeping the tree storage nutrient adequate, winter and spring rot disease is rare, fruit set rate is high, young fruit The swelling is very fast, the new shoots are thick, the leaves are thick, and the black hair is bright. Abandoned management of the orchard, no topdressing in summer, no application of base fertilizer in autumn, severe deficiency of tree nutrition, causing rot disease to flood, many fruit trees were shaved. Some of the surviving fruit trees, flowering full of trunks and shrinking on the trees, have few fruits, and the leaves are yellow and small like acacia leaves.
It can be seen that the autumn application of the base fertilizer and the adequate storage of the tree in winter are not only the key to keeping the tree strong and resisting the infection of rot, but also the basis for ensuring high yield and quality of the next year. Therefore, the experts appealed that: the autumn Shiji fertilizer is â€œgoldenâ€, the winter application base fertilizer is â€œsilverâ€, and the spring application base fertilizer is â€œbroken copper and ironâ€. It is necessary to grasp the time of fertilization.
5. The drainage facilities are blocked, and the drainage is not smooth
In the past, there was a drainage ditch at the head of the orchard. After the heavy rain, it was drained smoothly, and generally no water was accumulated. In recent decades, some have filled the ground drains and coveted a few more fruit trees, which is convenient for tricycles to fill in and drain the ditch. These have caused embarrassment in the orchard.
In 2016, it is not only a rainy year, but also a long-term high temperature year. The roots of fruit trees are seriously damaged due to fertilization, they have been seriously damaged and soaked in water for a long time, and they have lost absorption function. In addition, long-term high temperature evaporation has become deciduous, fruit drop, fruit tree death. The important reason.
Resolve fruit rot dead roots approach
1. Change the awareness of fertilization, and get out of the misunderstanding of chemical
Promote the application of farmyard manure; in particular, the application of high-quality commercial bio-organic fertilizer. If the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are insufficient, they can be supplemented with Tianji brand nitro compound fertilizer; vigorously advocate the use of fruit trees, weeds, straw smash and buried underground to improve soil aeration.
Farmyard manure, including human, livestock and poultry manure, must be mixed with soil and fully fermented and fermented. Chicken manure, pig manure, cow dung, etc. in the farm are mainly caused by hormones, caustic soda and salt. First, the soil is fermented and fermented, and the fruit is not suitable for continuous application. However, it should be noted that all chlorine-containing fertilizers such as compound fertilizers, compound fertilizers and organic-inorganic fertilizers produced with ammonium chloride and potassium chloride are prohibited in fruit trees.
2, improve fertilization methods, strengthen soil management,
Application of fermented and decomposed farmyard manure should be finely sprinkled and smashed into the soil by using hoeing planers to prevent excessive concentration of burned roots. Application of bio-organic fertilizers, compound fertilizers, whether it is ring-shaped or radial trenching, one is more radial digging (8-10); the second is the annular trenching; the third is deep and 30 cm deep . The fertilizer is widely exposed to the roots of the fruit trees. Sprinkle with fertilizer and soil and mix well to cover the soil to prevent the piles from burning the roots.
For soil management, it is necessary to insist on a whole planing orchard every spring, which not only keeps the aerobic layer well ventilated, but also prevents the root system from being led to the surface layer. In the spring and summer, the herbicide should be used less, and the four-wheel micro tillage machine should be used more, and the grass should be eliminated in time to keep the topsoil loose and well ventilated. In particular, in the case of continuous heavy rain, it is necessary to ventilate in time after the rain to prevent the root suffocation from causing a large number of fallen leaves.
3, grasp the base fertilizer time, increase storage nutrition
The winter tree storage of fruit trees is sufficient for nutrition, which is the basis for ensuring the robustness of the tree and the key to ensuring high yield and quality of the fruit in the next year. Early harvesting of fruit trees such as large cherry, apricot, peach, plum, walnut, grape, early and middle ripe pear, apple, etc., in September to complete the task of autumn application of base fertilizer. Hawthorn, chestnut and late-ripening varieties of apples, pears, peaches and other fruit trees, after harvesting in October, must grab time to apply enough base fertilizer, when the sensation is good, after the fall can also bring fruit fertilizer.
4, dredge drainage system, prevent orchard water,
In the orchard, through the whole planing orchard, the trunk is raised 15-20 cm to form a hatchback shape to prevent water from accumulating under the tree after heavy rain. The line between the fruit trees is 15-20 cm below the canopy. The dry days can be watered smoothly, and the rain can be drained smoothly after heavy rain.
5, strengthen soil improvement, scientifically replanting young trees
If the lower part belongs to the sticky soil, you must dig a large hole (1-1.2 m deep, 1-1.5 m square), fill the topsoil, sand and weeds, straw and other organic matter in the middle and lower parts to create a loose Live soil layer. All fruit trees that die from rotten roots have many harmful germs in the ground, and small fruit trees are replanted. First, it is not easy to survive. Second, even if it grows, it is not prosperous.
The rotten roots of dead trees in the orchard have always been a problem for many new farmers. The problem of rotten roots is not solved, which directly affects the normal growth of fruit trees, resulting in serious loss of orchards. Therefore, if there is a phenomenon of rotten dead trees in the orchard, everyone must find the cause in time, and "prescribe the right medicine" to promptly remove the hidden danger. Orchards that do not have rotten roots need to be actively guarded.
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